The Five Stage Model and the COI Framework: Similarities and Differences


  • Both want to support online learners
  • Both emphasize socialization
  • Both emphasize collaboration
  • Both have the role of the teacher to support, motivate, and facilitate learning tasks


  • COI framework is theoretical
  • Five Stage Model is practical
  • Educational experience in a COI framework has a focus on social, cognitive, and teaching presence
  • Educational experience in a Five Stage Model has a focus on creating “greater interaction and participation between participants in e-learning courses” (Monty, 2005)
  • More emphasis on technology in the Five Stage Model
  • Five Stage Model gives examples of activities that a teacher can incorporate

After reading Salmon’s (2006) ‘state of the art’ for the absolute essentials for successful e-moderating, one strategy I would be able to apply within my own practice is to provide multiple exemplars. While this strategy alone is beneficial, having the students identify the positive and negative aspects of each exemplar is really important. This process helps students assess their own work and gives them a much better idea of what they need to do to improve their assignments.


Epigeum Ltd. (Ed.). (2014). The five stage model. Retrieved from “”

Garrison, D. R. (2007). Online community of inquiry review: Social, cognitive, and teaching presence issues. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks , 11(1), 61-72. Retrieved from “”

Monty, A. (2005). The five-stage model of online learning. Retrieved from,online%20learning%22%20by%20Gilly%20Salmon&text=Gilly%20Salmon%20has%20developed%20a,participants%20in%20e%2Dlearning%20courses.

Salmon, G. (2006). 80:20 for e-moderators. In The challenge of ecompetence in academic staff development . CELT, NUI Galway, Galway, Republic of Ireland, pp. 145-154. Retrieved from “”

Vaughan, N. D., Cleveland-Innes, M., & Garrison, R.D. (2013). Facilitation. In Teaching in blended learning environments: Creating and sustaining communities of inquiry (pp. 45-62). Athabasca, AB: Athabasca University Press. Retrieved from “”